Understanding Gallstones

Written by Veronica Yoo

Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments


Gallstones are a common but often misunderstood medical condition. These hardened deposits found in the gallbladder—a small organ under the liver that aids in digesting fats—can vary in size, from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball. While gallstones are frequently harmless, they can sometimes cause significant pain and other complications. This blog post explores the factors that may contribute to gallstone formation, as well as the potential symptoms and treatments available.

A Closer Look at Gallstones

Cholesterol-based Gallstones

Cholesterol makes up the majority of gallstones. When the liver secretes more cholesterol than the gallbladder can dissolve, it can crystallize into stones. This imbalance is often related to dietary habits and overall health.

Bile Composition

Bile, a digestive fluid, is crucial in breaking down fats in our diet. An imbalance in the substances that form bile, such as too much bilirubin, can lead to gallstone development. This can be related to liver diseases or certain blood disorders.

Gallbladder Dysfunction

The gallbladder needs to empty its bile content properly to function effectively. If it doesn’t, the bile can become concentrated, leading to gallstone formation.

Contributing Factors to Gallstone Formation

  1. Genetics: Family history and specific genetic predispositions can increase gallstone risk.
  2. Weight: Obesity, and particularly central obesity, may result in increased cholesterol production, a key factor in gallstone formation.
  3. Diet: Diets high in fat, cholesterol, and low in fiber may contribute to gallstones.
  4. Rapid Weight Loss: Drastic weight loss can create an imbalance in cholesterol and bile, promoting gallstones.
  5. Diabetes: The high levels of fatty acids (triglycerides) in those with diabetes might elevate the risk.
  6. Pregnancy: Hormones during pregnancy may increase cholesterol levels in bile, leading to gallstones.
  7. Certain Medications: Some cholesterol-lowering drugs can ironically increase gallstone risk.
  8. Age and Gender: With age, gallstone risk rises, and women, especially those who have been pregnant, are more susceptible.
  9. Ethnicity: Certain ethnic backgrounds such as Native Americans and Mexican Americans may face higher gallstone rates.
  10. Medical Conditions: Diseases like cirrhosis or bile duct infections can be culprits.
  11. Physical Inactivity: Sedentary lifestyles might also contribute.
  12. Prolonged Fasting and Nutrition Support: Fasting or receiving nutrition through a vein may lead to gallstone development.

Symptoms and Complications

Many with gallstones will never experience symptoms. However, if a gallstone lodges in a duct, it can cause a sudden and intense pain in the upper right abdomen or center of the abdomen. This pain can last from a few minutes to several hours. Other symptoms might include nausea, vomiting, fever, or jaundice.

Treatments and Prevention

Treatment depends on whether gallstones are causing symptoms. In many cases, a “watch-and-wait” approach may be advised. Lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, weight management, and regular exercise can help prevent gallstone formation.

If gallstones cause symptoms, treatments might include medications to dissolve the stones or surgical removal of the gallbladder. Surgical removal is a common and generally safe procedure.


Gallstones are complex and multifactorial in nature. While they may remain asymptomatic, they can lead to severe pain and other complications when they do manifest. Understanding the factors that contribute to gallstone formation can lead to effective prevention and treatment. Consultation with healthcare providers is always recommended for personalized advice and treatment options.

In the pursuit of health and wellness, it’s vital to be informed about conditions like gallstones. With proper knowledge and care, they can be managed and often prevented, leading to a healthier and more comfortable life.

Veronica Yoo

Veronica is dedicated and experienced nutritionist and certified health coach who specializes in functional medicine, She's a published author, nutritional instructor, WBFF professional figure athlete, and both the brains and beauty behind all that Makeover Nutrition offers.

Veronica is also the President & CEO of a BC based health and wellness association; Pacific Alliance of Body Care.